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Relative Penetration of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions into Human Skin after Application of Different Zinc Oxide Formulations

Holmes, Amy M ; Song, Zhen ; Moghimi, Hamid R ; Roberts, Michael S

ACS nano, 2016-02-23, Vol.10 (2), p.1810-1819 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Relative Penetration of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Ions into Human Skin after Application of Different Zinc Oxide Formulations
  • Author: Holmes, Amy M ; Song, Zhen ; Moghimi, Hamid R ; Roberts, Michael S
  • Subjects: Zinc - administration & dosage ; Zinc Oxide - pharmacokinetics ; Humans ; Middle Aged ; Skin Absorption ; Zinc - chemistry ; Zinc Oxide - administration & dosage ; Sunscreening Agents - administration & dosage ; Zinc - pharmacokinetics ; Zinc Oxide - chemistry ; Sunscreening Agents - chemistry ; Sunscreening Agents - pharmacokinetics ; Zinc Sulfate - chemistry ; Adult ; Female ; Administration, Topical
  • Is Part Of: ACS nano, 2016-02-23, Vol.10 (2), p.1810-1819
  • Description: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is frequently used in commercial sunscreen formulations to deliver their broad range of UV protection properties. Concern has been raised about the extent to which these ZnO particles (both micronized and nanoparticulate) penetrate the skin and their resultant toxicity. This work has explored the human epidermal skin penetration of zinc oxide and its labile zinc ion dissolution product that may potentially be formed after application of ZnO nanoparticles to human epidermis. Three ZnO nanoparticle formulations were used: a suspension in the oil, capric caprylic triglycerides (CCT), the base formulation commonly used in commercially available sunscreen products; an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 6, similar to the natural skin surface pH; and an aqueous ZnO suspension at pH 9, a pH at which ZnO is stable and there is minimal pH-induced impairment of epidermal integrity. In each case, the ZnO in the formulations did not penetrate into the intact viable epidermis for any of the formulations but was associated with an enhanced increase in zinc ion fluorescence signal in both the stratum corneum and the viable epidermis. The highest labile zinc fluorescence was found for the ZnO suspension at pH 6. It is concluded that, while topically applied ZnO does not penetrate into the viable epidermis, these applications are associated with hydrolysis of ZnO on the skin surface, leading to an increase in zinc ion levels in the stratum corneum, thence in the viable epidermis and subsequently in the systemic circulation and the urine.
  • Publisher: United States: American Chemical Society
  • Language: English
  • Identifier: ISSN: 1936-0851
    EISSN: 1936-086X
    DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b04148
    PMID: 26741484
  • Source: ACS Publications
    American Chemical Society Single Title Subscriptions

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