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Cadmium determination in natural waters at the limit imposed by European legislation by isotope dilution and TiO 2 solid-phase extraction

García-Ruiz, Silvia ; Petrov, Ivan ; Vassileva, Emilia ; Quétel, Christophe

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, Vol.401(9), pp.2785-2792 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Cadmium determination in natural waters at the limit imposed by European legislation by isotope dilution and TiO 2 solid-phase extraction
  • Author: García-Ruiz, Silvia ; Petrov, Ivan ; Vassileva, Emilia ; Quétel, Christophe
  • Subjects: Cadmium ; Groundwater and wastewater ; TiO solid-phase extraction ; ID-ICP-MS ; Uncertainty estimation and method validation ; European water framework directive
  • Is Part Of: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2011, Vol.401(9), pp.2785-2792
  • Description: The cadmium content in surface water is regulated by the last European Water Framework Directive to a maximum between 0.08 and 0.25 μg L −1 depending on the water type and hardness. Direct measurement of cadmium at this low level is not straightforward in real samples, and we hereby propose a validated method capable of addressing cadmium content below μg L −1 level in natural water. It is based on solid-phase extraction using TiO 2 nanoparticles as solid sorbent (0.05 g packed in mini-columns) to allow the separation and preconcentration of cadmium from the sample, combined to direct isotope dilution and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The extraction setup is miniaturised and semi-automated to reduce risks of sample contamination and improve reproducibility. Procedural blanks for the whole measurement process were 5.3 ± 2.8 ng kg −1 (1 s) for 50 g of ultrapure water preconcentrated ten times. Experimental conditions influencing the separation (including loading pH, sample flow rates, and acid concentration in the eluent) were evaluated. With isotope dilution the Cd recovery rate does not have to be evaluated carefully. Moreover, the mathematical model associated to IDMS is known, and provides transparency for the uncertainty propagation. Our validation protocol was in agreement with guidelines of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard (chapter 5.4.5). Firstly, we assessed the experimental factors influencing the final result. Secondly, we compared the isotope ratios measured after our separation procedure to the reference values obtained with a different protocol for the digested test material IMEP-111 (mineral feed). Thirdly, we analysed the certified reference material BCR-609 (groundwater). Finally, combined uncertainties associated to our results were estimated according to ISO-GUM guidelines (typically, 3–4% k  = 2 for a cadmium content of around 100 ng kg −1 ). We applied the developed method to the groundwater and wastewater samples ERM-CA615 and BCR-713, respectively, and results agreed with certificate values within uncertainty statements. Figure  
  • Language: English
  • Identifier: ISSN: 1618-2642 ; E-ISSN: 1618-2650 ; DOI: 10.1007/s00216-011-5256-0

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