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Patterns of glycemia in normal pregnancy: should the current therapeutic targets be challenged?

Hernandez, Teri L ; Friedman, Jacob E ; Van Pelt, Rachael E ; Barbour, Linda A Hernandez, Teri L (correspondence author) ; Hernandez, Teri L (record owner)

Diabetes care, July 2011, Vol.34(7), pp.1660-1668 [Peer Reviewed Journal]

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  • Title:
    Patterns of glycemia in normal pregnancy: should the current therapeutic targets be challenged?
  • Author: Hernandez, Teri L ; Friedman, Jacob E ; Van Pelt, Rachael E ; Barbour, Linda A
  • Hernandez, Teri L (correspondence author) ; Hernandez, Teri L (record owner)
  • Subjects: Birth Weight–Metabolism ; Blood Glucose–Blood ; Body Mass Index–Blood ; Diabetes, Gestational–Blood ; Female–Blood ; Humans–Blood ; Infant, Newborn–Blood ; Pregnancy–Blood ; Pregnancy Complications–Blood ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects–Blood ; Blood Glucose
  • Is Part Of: Diabetes care, July 2011, Vol.34(7), pp.1660-1668
  • Description: Despite the well-known influence of maternal glucose on infant birth weight (BW), the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) infants (≥90th percentile for age) has been increasing steadily over decades, particularly in pregnancies complicated by pregestational or gestational diabetes mellitus (1). Although the overall prevalence of macrosomia (BW ≥4,000 g) is 17–29% in women with untreated gestational diabetes, the majority of macrosomic infants are born to women with obesity but no gestational diabetes (2,3). Moreover, epidemiologic data show that a higher BW is associated with higher BMI and glucose intolerance later in life (4,5), suggesting life-long metabolic implications for offspring. Recent data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study suggested that concentrations of maternal glucose below the previously accepted diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes are predictive of LGA and fetal hyperinsulinemia (6). On the basis of this landmark study, the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended new lower diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes (7,8). However, a significant number of women with gestational diabetes whose glucose values are within the current targeted therapeutic ranges deliver macrosomic infants (9). Although glucose plays a major role in fetal growth, this paradox underscores the likely role of other nutrients in fetal growth, but also the need to critically reexamine our definition of “normal” maternal patterns of glycemia and the effects on fetal growth. The new diagnostic criteria recommended by the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group and ADA are expected to increase the prevalence of gestational diabetes to 18%. Thus, treatment targets may need to be reevaluated. Historically, the treatment goal in pregnancies complicated by diabetes has been to mimic patterns of glycemia in normal pregnancy (1). Although the HAPO study better defined abnormal …
  • Language: English
  • Identifier: E-ISSN: 1935-5548 ; DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0241

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